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Concepts of Lightning and Surge Protection

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Lightning strokes, which total 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards to the equipment or location, so lightning protection is vital for operation.

Let us focus on your initial note in regards to what is lightning and why lightning protection is indeed important. Principle phenomenon behind lightning is always that charges accumulated from your cloud as well as the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface in the air. In the event the gradient is larger as opposed to potential of the surface, the breakdown occurs and a "streamer" flows from your cloud towards earth.

A primary stroke happens when the lightning hits the electricity systems directly the immense potential may cause destruction from the equipment or even the facility. In comparison, an indirect stroke occurs from the lightning discharges inside the proximity of the power line or from electrostatic discharge about the conductor because of the charged clouds.

The main power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, security systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.

Strategies to Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere strategy is utilized for identifying the actual keeping of the lightning and surge protection devices nearby the equipment under operation.



Protection of the power line against direct strokes is thru a ground wire or protector tube. The previous produces electrostatic screening, that is affected by the capacitances with the cloud to line as well as the line to ground. The latter forms an arc relating to the electrodes, causing gas deionisation.

Rooftop/Frame Protection. It is interesting to remember how the building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.

Setting up a finial at the top of the electricity tower needs to have a nominal amount distance of 1.5 m above the highest antenna or lights. This kind of rooftop or building frame is constructed of reinforced steel for defense purpose.

Wooden towers without downconductors could potentially cause a fire hazard, since they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors needs to be installed on the appropriate location and height.

Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection is given through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The very first method uses ball points in order that if a strike occurs, high potential forms together and the ground. The next method causes gas deionisation through arc formation between your electrodes. The last method uses a coax transmission line across the transmission line so that system bandwidth is narrow.

A lightning arrester is really a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The unit classification may range from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.

Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now learn about how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection ought to be afforded. The appearance of earth rods, terminals or clamps ought to be in a way to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should adhere to the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system must have proper bonding, as ground potential rise cannot be compensated. Again, the amount of interconnects and spacing ought to be designed per the lightning standards.

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